THE MODERN WORLD: Age of Reason – 1700s
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Patrick Henry objected that Treaties with foreign powers superseded the law of the land
2 / 81
Patrick Henry’s ancestors had settled in Western Virginia as part of the Scotch-Irish migration.
3 / 81
The Constitution is a revolution more radical than that which separated us from Great Britain.
4 / 81
The Constitution’s social contract is no different than the Bible’s covenant model.
5 / 81
Henry objected to creation of a confederation as opposed to a vibrant, consolidated government.
6 / 81
Madison’s call for a Constitutional Convention was illegal under the Articles of Confederation.
7 / 81
Henry fretted that the undefined court system would be dominated by the other branches
8 / 81
Henry was frustrated at the ease with which the Constitution might be amended
9 / 81
Henry objected that the Constitution’s limited powers would hinder the growth of empire.
10 / 81
Patrick Henry was James Madison’s principle opponent at the Virginia Ratifying Convention.
11 / 81
Lock’s logical, English pen was a powerful tool against the left-wing of the Enlightenment
12 / 81
Reid’s “An Inquiry into the Human Mind” won immediate acclaim with the Scottish public
13 / 81
Acceptance of Thomas Reid’s philosophy is a good example of the error of the excluded middle
14 / 81
Madison and Jefferson did incalculable damage to America’s national covenant with God
15 / 81
Reid’s religious background made him acutely aware of the effect of the Fall on the mind
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By common sense, Reid meant an innate sense of right and wrong inherent in the human mind
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Reid shared with his adversaries a common rejection of revelation as the starting point for truth
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Reid saw no reason to pit idealism against empiricism since they came from the same source
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Reid is often pictured wearing the green beret in keeping with his revolutionary spirit
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Thomas Reid’s ancestors were clergymen and scientists
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We the People” replaces God as the source of governing authority under the Constitution
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Madison’s Constitution was last in a long line of colonial, covenant documents
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Scottish Common Sense Realism of the left wing Enlightenment governed the Founders
24 / 81
Madison fought for a secular republic, because he believed religion is a source of faction.
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According to I Samuel 8 a government that takes more than 10% of income is a tyranny.
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The Biblical ideal is pluralism, in which law is flexible due to competing belief systems
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By forsaking the Bible as the highest law of the land America broke covenant with God
29 / 81
Benedict Arnold won the War for the colonies in the Battle of Saratoga
30 / 81
Madison was adamant that the Articles be modified only in accordance with law
31 / 81
Educated by the Jesuits, Voltaire hoped they would provide the vehicle for his revolution
32 / 81
In spite of his disdain for the Christian religion, Voltaire respected Christ as a good Teacher.
33 / 81
Human suffering is the inevitable result of mankind’s rebellion from the Creator.
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Voltaire admired Britain’s Bloodless Revolution, but his skepticism could not duplicate it.
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Voltaire had a well thought out plan for revolution, which he outlined in the Encyclopedia
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Like all humanists Voltaire sought the brotherhood of man apart from the Fatherhood of God.
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Dr. Pangloss persistently attacks Candide’s spirit of unquenchable optimism
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Voltaire’s attacks on Christianity sprang from his staunch commitment to atheism
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Voltaire typically issued attacks from the Swiss border to provide an escape route if needed.
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Voltaire’s sarcasm made Christianity appear childish and unbelief fashionable
41 / 81
The Persian Letters light-heartedly mocked church, Trinity, and a providential view of history.
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Republican virtue springs from a Roman, Stoic life of frugality, independence and self-denial
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The Catholic Religion is most agreeable to a Republic, and the Protestant to a Monarchy.
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Montesquieu rejected the thesis that law arises from “the nature of things” apart from revelation
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Montesquieu valued Christianity for its social stability, but ignored specifics of Biblical law
46 / 81
The title Spirit of Laws implies a form of sociological law, that may morph based on circumstance.
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The Spirit of Laws limited the people to choice of representatives, but no decision-making power.
48 / 81
Montesquieu’s unique contribution was the federal form, which united independent states.
49 / 81
There is a motivating trait in each form, Democracy (greed), Republic (honor), monarchy (virtue). (
50 / 81
Rousseau & Voltaire led the way to the French Revolution in the first wave of the Enlightenment
51 / 81
The stage is set with a parody of Job’s heavenly council and God betting on Faustian striving.
52 / 81
In the end, God and Faust are pictured in heaven the winners and the Devil the loser.
53 / 81
Faust follows a 3-part outline: intellectual growth, emotional trauma, & cultural achievement.
54 / 81
Faust turns Eve’s temptation – Thou shalt be as God – into the path of salvation
55 / 81
Blackstone’s Commentaries stood aloof from the corrupting influence of Goethe’s naturalism.
56 / 81
Bing Crosby’s “I Did It My Way” might well serve as Faust’s theme song. (
57 / 81
As told by Goethe, Faust is the tale of a man who sold his soul to the Devil for earthly delights.
58 / 81
Goethe was a life-long rationalist, a product of the 18th Century Enlightenment.
59 / 81
Goethe’s work is unusual given his strict upbringing in the Lutheran, Reformed faith.
60 / 81
Goethe was Germany’s response in literature to England’s Shakespeare
61 / 81
If Christ is less than God He is unqualified to die for the sins of the entire human race.
62 / 81
Statist bias shows in nostalgia for the old Roman Empire as man’s great political hope
63 / 81
The view that Christ is like-nature with God, leads kings naturally to make Him their Lord.
64 / 81
God subduing all nations under Christ’s kingdom is the ultimate interpretative principle
65 / 81
Gibbon let the facts speak for themselves and kept his personal opinion out of it
66 / 81
Gibbon believed history can’t be explained only by social institutions in which it is contained
67 / 81
Gibbon’s early Christian training gave him a fresh perspective on Roman history.
68 / 81
History cannot be interpreted apart from God’s Decree in Psalm Two.
69 / 81
Gibbon blamed Christianity for the fall of the Roman Empire
70 / 81
Philosophical empiricism leads ultimately to historical optimism
71 / 81
Edwards neglect of Biblical law, led to the covenant-breaking Constitution of 1787.
72 / 81
Thanks to Edwards preaching, the Enlightenment never gained a foothold in America.
73 / 81
If the culture is not challenged, new converts tend to lapse into old, familiar habits.
74 / 81
A distinguishing feature of the Holy Commonwealth was commitment to Biblical economics.
75 / 81
Edwards shortcomings as an evangelist, necessitated inviting Whitfield in for backup
76 / 81
Thomas Hooker’s granting voting rights to unbelievers destroyed the Holy Commonwealth.
77 / 81
Edwards refusal to permit paedo-communion was a major factor in the declension.
78 / 81
Theologians advising in court (Dt. 17:9) could have averted the witch trial debacle
79 / 81
Edwards attention to cultural applications of Biblical law make him our greatest theologian
80 / 81
Neo-Puritans retain soteriological distinctives of Calvinism, but neglect cultural applications
81 / 81
By 1700 the third generation of Puritans in America was well-established in the faith
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