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THE MODERN WORLD: Age of Reason – 1700s

1 / 81

Patrick Henry objected that Treaties with foreign powers superseded the law of the land

2 / 81

Patrick Henry’s ancestors had settled in Western Virginia as part of the Scotch-Irish migration.

3 / 81

The Constitution is a revolution more radical than that which separated us from Great Britain.

4 / 81

The Constitution’s social contract is no different than the Bible’s covenant model.

5 / 81

Henry objected to creation of a confederation as opposed to a vibrant, consolidated government.

6 / 81

Madison’s call for a Constitutional Convention was illegal under the Articles of Confederation.

7 / 81

Henry fretted that the undefined court system would be dominated by the other branches

8 / 81

Henry was frustrated at the ease with which the Constitution might be amended

9 / 81

Henry objected that the Constitution’s limited powers would hinder the growth of empire.

10 / 81

Patrick Henry was James Madison’s principle opponent at the Virginia Ratifying Convention.

11 / 81

Lock’s logical, English pen was a powerful tool against the left-wing of the Enlightenment

12 / 81

Reid’s “An Inquiry into the Human Mind” won immediate acclaim with the Scottish public

13 / 81

Acceptance of Thomas Reid’s philosophy is a good example of the error of the excluded middle

14 / 81

Madison and Jefferson did incalculable damage to America’s national covenant with God

15 / 81

Reid’s religious background made him acutely aware of the effect of the Fall on the mind

16 / 81

By common sense, Reid meant an innate sense of right and wrong inherent in the human mind

17 / 81

Reid shared with his adversaries a common rejection of revelation as the starting point for truth

18 / 81

Reid saw no reason to pit idealism against empiricism since they came from the same source

19 / 81

Reid is often pictured wearing the green beret in keeping with his revolutionary spirit

20 / 81

Thomas Reid’s ancestors were clergymen and scientists

21 / 81

We the People” replaces God as the source of governing authority under the Constitution

22 / 81

Madison’s Constitution was last in a long line of colonial, covenant documents

23 / 81

Scottish Common Sense Realism of the left wing Enlightenment governed the Founders

24 / 81

Madison fought for a secular republic, because he believed religion is a source of faction.

25 / 81

According to I Samuel 8 a government that takes more than 10% of income is a tyranny.

26 / 81

The Biblical ideal is pluralism, in which law is flexible due to competing belief systems

27 / 81

The Biblical ideal is pluralism, in which law is flexible due to competing belief systems

28 / 81

By forsaking the Bible as the highest law of the land America broke covenant with God

29 / 81

Benedict Arnold won the War for the colonies in the Battle of Saratoga

30 / 81

Madison was adamant that the Articles be modified only in accordance with law

31 / 81

Educated by the Jesuits, Voltaire hoped they would provide the vehicle for his revolution

32 / 81

In spite of his disdain for the Christian religion, Voltaire respected Christ as a good Teacher.

33 / 81

Human suffering is the inevitable result of mankind’s rebellion from the Creator.

34 / 81

Voltaire admired Britain’s Bloodless Revolution, but his skepticism could not duplicate it.

35 / 81

Voltaire had a well thought out plan for revolution, which he outlined in the Encyclopedia

36 / 81

Like all humanists Voltaire sought the brotherhood of man apart from the Fatherhood of God.

37 / 81

Dr. Pangloss persistently attacks Candide’s spirit of unquenchable optimism

38 / 81

Voltaire’s attacks on Christianity sprang from his staunch commitment to atheism

39 / 81

Voltaire typically issued attacks from the Swiss border to provide an escape route if needed.

40 / 81

Voltaire’s sarcasm made Christianity appear childish and unbelief fashionable

41 / 81

The Persian Letters light-heartedly mocked church, Trinity, and a providential view of history.

42 / 81

Republican virtue springs from a Roman, Stoic life of frugality, independence and self-denial

43 / 81

The Catholic Religion is most agreeable to a Republic, and the Protestant to a Monarchy.

44 / 81

Montesquieu rejected the thesis that law arises from “the nature of things” apart from revelation

45 / 81

Montesquieu valued Christianity for its social stability, but ignored specifics of Biblical law

46 / 81

The title Spirit of Laws implies a form of sociological law, that may morph based on circumstance.

47 / 81

The Spirit of Laws limited the people to choice of representatives, but no decision-making power.

48 / 81

Montesquieu’s unique contribution was the federal form, which united independent states.

49 / 81

There is a motivating trait in each form, Democracy (greed), Republic (honor), monarchy (virtue). (

50 / 81

Rousseau & Voltaire led the way to the French Revolution in the first wave of the Enlightenment

51 / 81

The stage is set with a parody of Job’s heavenly council and God betting on Faustian striving.

52 / 81

In the end, God and Faust are pictured in heaven the winners and the Devil the loser.

53 / 81

Faust follows a 3-part outline: intellectual growth, emotional trauma, & cultural achievement.

54 / 81

Faust turns Eve’s temptation – Thou shalt be as God – into the path of salvation

55 / 81

Blackstone’s Commentaries stood aloof from the corrupting influence of Goethe’s naturalism.

56 / 81

Bing Crosby’s “I Did It My Way” might well serve as Faust’s theme song. (

57 / 81

As told by Goethe, Faust is the tale of a man who sold his soul to the Devil for earthly delights.

58 / 81

Goethe was a life-long rationalist, a product of the 18th Century Enlightenment.

59 / 81

Goethe’s work is unusual given his strict upbringing in the Lutheran, Reformed faith.

60 / 81

Goethe was Germany’s response in literature to England’s Shakespeare

61 / 81

If Christ is less than God He is unqualified to die for the sins of the entire human race.

62 / 81

Statist bias shows in nostalgia for the old Roman Empire as man’s great political hope

63 / 81

The view that Christ is like-nature with God, leads kings naturally to make Him their Lord.

64 / 81

God subduing all nations under Christ’s kingdom is the ultimate interpretative principle

65 / 81

Gibbon let the facts speak for themselves and kept his personal opinion out of it

66 / 81

Gibbon believed history can’t be explained only by social institutions in which it is contained

67 / 81

Gibbon’s early Christian training gave him a fresh perspective on Roman history.

68 / 81

History cannot be interpreted apart from God’s Decree in Psalm Two.

69 / 81

Gibbon blamed Christianity for the fall of the Roman Empire

70 / 81

Philosophical empiricism leads ultimately to historical optimism

71 / 81

Edwards neglect of Biblical law, led to the covenant-breaking Constitution of 1787.

72 / 81

Thanks to Edwards preaching, the Enlightenment never gained a foothold in America.

73 / 81

If the culture is not challenged, new converts tend to lapse into old, familiar habits.

74 / 81

A distinguishing feature of the Holy Commonwealth was commitment to Biblical economics.

75 / 81

Edwards shortcomings as an evangelist, necessitated inviting Whitfield in for backup

76 / 81

Thomas Hooker’s granting voting rights to unbelievers destroyed the Holy Commonwealth.

77 / 81

Edwards refusal to permit paedo-communion was a major factor in the declension.

78 / 81

Theologians advising in court (Dt. 17:9) could have averted the witch trial debacle

79 / 81

Edwards attention to cultural applications of Biblical law make him our greatest theologian

80 / 81

Neo-Puritans retain soteriological distinctives of Calvinism, but neglect cultural applications

81 / 81

By 1700 the third generation of Puritans in America was well-established in the faith

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